Biography

A biography, or simply bio, is a detailed description of a person’s life. It involves more than just the basic facts like education, work, relationships. A biography presents a subject’s life story, highlighting various aspects of his or her life, including intimate details of experience, and may include an analysis of the subject’s personality.

Independent Sultans of Bengal during Tughlaq Sultanate (1338–1352)

Name Region Reign Notes
Fakhruddin Mubarak Shah Sonargaon 1338–1349
Ikhtiyaruddin Ghazi Shah Sonargaon 1349–1352
Ilyas Shah Satgaon 1339–1342
Alauddin Ali Shah Lakhnauti 1339–1342
Ilyas Shah Lakhnauti and Satgaon 1342–1352

Ilyas Shahi dynasty (1352–1414)[edit source]

Name Reign Notes
Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah 1352–1358 Became the first sole ruler of whole Bengal comprising SonargaonSatgaon and Lakhnauti.
Sikandar Shah 1358–1390 Killed in battle with his son and successor, Ghiyasuddin Azam Shah
Ghiyasuddin Azam Shah 1390–1411
Saifuddin Hamza Shah 1411–1412
Shihabuddin Bayazid Shah 1412–1414

House of Raja Ganesha (1414–1435)

Name Reign Notes
Raja Ganesha 1414–1415
Jalaluddin Muhammad Shah 1415–1416 Son of Raja Ganesha and converted into Islam
Raja Ganesha 1416–1418 Second Phase
Jalaluddin Muhammad Shah 1418–1433 Second Phase
Shamsuddin Ahmad Shah 1433–1435

Restored Ilyas Shahi dynasty (1435–1487)[edit source]

Name Reign Notes
Nasiruddin Mahmud Shah 1435–1459
Rukunuddin Barbak Shah 1459–1474
Shamsuddin Yusuf Shah 1474–1481
Sikandar Shah II 1481
Jalaaluddin Fateh Shah 1481–1487

Habshi rule (1487–1494)[edit source]

Name Reign Notes
Shahzada Barbak 1487
Saifuddin Firuz Shah 1487–1489
Mahmud Shah II 1489–1490
Shamsuddin Muzaffar Shah 1490–1494

Hussain Shahi dynasty (1494–1538)[edit source]

Name Reign Notes
Alauddin Hussain Shah 1494–1518
Nasiruddin Nasrat Shah 1518–1533
Alauddin Firuz Shah 1533
Ghiyasuddin Mahmud Shah 1533–1538

Governors of Bengal under Suri Empire (1532–1556)[edit source]

Name Reign Notes
Sher Shah Suri 1532–1538 Defeated Mughals and became the ruler of Delhi in 1540.
Khidr Khan 1538–1541
Qazi Fazilat 1541–1545
Muhammad Khan Sur 1545–1554
Shahbaz Khan 1555

Muhammad Shah dynasty (1554–1564)[edit source]

Name Reign Notes
Muhammad Khan Sur 1554–1555 Declared independence and styled himself as Shamsuddin Muhammad Shah
Khizr Khan Suri 1555–1561
Ghiyasuddin Jalal Shah 1561–1563
Ghiyasuddin Shah III 1563–1564[12]

Karrani dynasty (1564–1576)[edit source]

Name Reign Notes
Taj Khan Karrani 1564–1566
Sulaiman Khan Karrani 1566–1572
Bayazid Khan Karrani 1572
Daud Khan Karrani 1572–1576

Mughal Subahdars of Bengal Subah (1565–1717)[edit source]

During the reign of Akbar[edit source]

Name Reign Notes
Munim Khan 1574–1575 Khan-i-Khanan
Hussain Quli Khan 1575–1578
Muzaffar Khan Turbati 1579–1580
Mirza Aziz Koka 1582–1583
Wazir Khan Tajik 1583–1583
Shahbaz Khan Kamboh 1583–1585
Sadiq Khan 1585–1586
Wazir Khan Tajik 1586–1587
Sa’id Khan 1587–1594
Raja Man Singh I 1597 – 1606[13]

During the reign of Jahangir[edit source]

Name Reign Notes
Qutubuddin Koka Sep 2, 1606 – 1607 killed in a battle against Sher Afghan. (Local history of Burdwan, West Bengal, India says that Qutub-ud-din Kokah died in a battle against Ali Quli Istajlu alias Sher Afgan in 1610 CE. The tomb where both of them were buried is presently under the surveillance of Archaeological Survey of India.)
Jahangir Quli Beg 1607–1608 In early life, a slave of Akbar‘s brother, Mirza Muhammad Hakim
Islam Khan Chishti 1608–1613 first governor to transfer the Bengal capital to Dhaka in April 1612
Qasim Khan Chishti 1613–1617 younger brother of Islam Khan Chishti
Ibrahim Khan Fath-i-Jang 1617–1624 died in an attack by Prince Shahjahan
Mahabat Khan 1625–1626
Mukarram Khan 1626–1627
Fidai Khan 1627–1628

During the reign of Shah Jahan[edit source]

Name Reign Notes
Qasim Khan Juvayni 1628–1632
Mir Muhammad Baqir 1632–1635 Known as Azam Khan
Mir Abdus Salam 1635–1639 Known as Islam Khan Mashadi
Prince Shah Shuja 1639–1647 again 1652–1660

During the reign of Aurangzeb[edit source]

Azim-us-Shan (r. 1697–1712) receiving the investiture of Khizr

Name Reign Notes
Mir Jumla II 1660–1663
Shaista Khan 1664–1678
Azam Khan Koka 1678–1678 Known as Fidai Khan II
Prince Muhammad Azam 20 July 1678 – 6 October 1679[14]
Shaista Khan 1680–1688
Ibrahim Khan II 1689–1697
Prince Azim-us-Shan 1697–1712

Post Aurangzeb Subahdars[edit source]

Name Reign Notes
Khan-i-Alam 1712–1713
Farrukh Siyar 1713–1717
Murshid Quli Khan 1717–1727

The Nawabs of Bengal[edit source]

Portrait Titular Name Personal Name Birth Reign Death
Nasiri Dynasty
Ala ud-Daula Murshid Quli Jafar Khan 1665 1717– 1727 30 June 1727
Sarfaraz Khan.jpg Mirza Asadullah Sarfaraz Khan Bahadur ? 1727–1727 April 1740
Shuja-ud-Din Muhammad Khan.jpg Shuja ud-Daula Shuja-ud-Din Muhammad Khan 1670 July 1727 – 26 August 1739 26 August 1739
Sarfaraz Khan.jpg Mirza Asadullah Sarfaraz Khan Bahadur ? 13 March 1739 – April 1740 April 1740
Afshar Dynasty
Allavardi Xán.jpg Husam ud-Daula Muhammad Alivardi Khan Bahadur 10 May 1671 29 April 1740 – 16 April 1756 16 April 1756
Siraj ud-Daulah.jpg Siraj ud-Daulah Mîrzâ Muhammad Sirâj-ud-Daulah 1733 April 1756 – 2 June 1757 June 1757
Najafi Dynasty
Mir Jafar (left) and Mir Miran (right).jpg Ja’afar ‘Ali Khan Bahadur Mir Muhammed Jafar Ali Khan 1691 June 1757 – October 1760 17 January 1765
Mir Qasim.jpg Itimad ud-Daulah Mir Kasim Ali Khan Bahadur ? 1760–1763 1777
Mir Jafar (left) and Mir Miran (right).jpg Ja’afar ‘Ali Khan Bahadur Mir Muhammed Jafar Ali Khan 1691 25 July 1763 – 17 January 1765 17 January 1765
Nazam ud-Daulah.jpg Nazam-ud-Daulah Najimuddin Ali Khan 1750 5 February 1765 – 8 May 1766 8 May 1766
Saif ud-Daulah.jpg Saif ud-Daulah Najabut Ali Khan 1749 22 May 1766 – 10 March 1770 10 March 1770
Mubaraq ud-Daulah.jpg Mubarak ud-Daulah Ashraf Ali Khan 1759 21 March 1770 – 6 September 1793 6 September 1793
Babar Ali.jpg Azud ud-Daulah Babar Ali Khan Bahadur ? 1793 – 28 April 1810 28 April 1810
Ali Jah.jpg Ali Jah Zain-ud-Din Ali Khan ? 5 June 1810 – 6 August 1821 6 August 1821
Walla Jah.jpg Walla Jah Ahmad Ali Khan ? 1810 – 30 October 1824 30 October 1824
Nawab Nazim Humayun Jah.jpg Humayun Jah Mubarak Ali Khan 29 September 1810 1824 – 3 October 1838 3 October 1838
Feradun Jah.jpg Feradun Jah Mansur Ali Khan 29 October 1830 29 October 1838 –1881 (abdicated) 5 November 1884

Nawabs of Murshidabad[edit source]

Picture Titular Name Personal Name Birth Reign Death
Najafi Dynasty
Young Hassan Ali.jpg Ali Kadir Hassan Ali Mirza Khan Bahadur 25 August 1846 17 February 1882 – 25 December 1906 25 December 1906
Wasif Ali Mirza Khan Bahadur.jpg Amir ul-Omrah Wasif Ali Mirza Khan Bahadur 7 January 1875 December 1906–23 October 1959 23 October 1959
Waris Ali.jpg Raes ud-Daulah Waris Ali Mirza Khan Bahadur 14 November 1901 1959 – 20 November 1969 ( no clear successor-post/title in dispute) 20 November 1969

Hindu Dynasties in Bengal[edit source]

Maharajas of Bankura[edit source]

Maharajas of Bhurshut[edit source]

Maharajas of Chandradwip[edit source]

Many illustrious maharajas ruled much of East Bengal and the Sundarbans and conquered Jessore Their surname was Basu – they came to Bengal during the Sena Dynasty to conquer the Palas and take over from them. A famous literary novel was written about the Chandradwip Basu family by Tagore called Bou Thakuranis Haat and a film was made from this book.

Bhawal Estate[edit source]

Rulers of Gazipur and Madhupur forest area, in central Bangladesh.

Maharajas of Koch kingdom[edit source]

Maharajas of Jessore Kingdom[edit source]

Maharajas of Midnapore[edit source]

Maharajas of Nadia[edit source]

Maharajas of Sripur[edit source]

East India Company governors in Bengal[edit source]

Governors of British East India Company in Bengal (1757–1793)[edit source]

As per the treaty of Allahabad in 1765, the British East India Company (BEIC) was given the right to collect revenue (Diwani right). From 1769, the company collected revenue from Bengal.

Governor-Generals of British East India Company in Bengal – Dual government (1773-1774)[edit source]

Following the Regulating Act of 1773, the Governor of Bengal was officially called Governor-General of Fort William.

Governor-Generals of British East India Company in Bengal (1793–1854)[edit source]

In 1793, the British East India Company abolished Nizamat, i.e. local rule by Mughal emperor- appointed Nawabs and annexed Bengal.

Governor-Generals of British East India Company (1833-1858)[edit source]

As per Charter Act of 1833, the Governor-General of Bengal would be called Governor-General of India

British Raj Period[edit source]

With the establishment of the Empire of India in 1858, the position of Governor-General was replaced with Governor-General and Viceroy of India. Calcutta, the capital of Bengal also became the capital of India. As a result, the position of Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal was established to look after provincial matters.

Lieutenant-Governors (1858–1912)[edit source]

Governors (1912–1947)[edit source]

In late 1911, the Indian Government decided to move the capital to New Delhi. As a result, the Governorship of Bengal Presidency was now necessary.

Prime Minister of Bengal (1937–1947)[edit source]

The Government of India Act 1935 introduced provincial autonomy in India and the position of Chief Minister or Premier of Bengal became very prominent.

No Name Term(s)[15] Party
1 Sher-e-Bangla
A. K. Fazlul Huq
1 April 1937 – 1 December 1941
12 December 1941 – 29 March 1943
Krishak Praja Party
2 Sir Khawaja Nazimuddin 29 April 1943 – 31 March 1945 All India Muslim League
3 H. S. Suhrawardy 23 April 1946 – 14 August 1947 All India Muslim League

Subsequently, all three Bengali chief ministers moved to East Pakistan, where they continued to be influential statesmen. Nazimuddin and Suhrawardy became Prime Ministers of Pakistan, while Huq served as the Chief Minister and Governor of East Pakistan.

After Independence of India and Pakistan[edit source]

British colonial period ended when India and Pakistan became independent nations in 1947. Bengal fell into two parts – one in India, named West Bengal and the other part in Pakistan as East Bengal, later renamed to East Pakistan in 1955.

Pakistani (east) Bengal (1947–1971)[edit source]

Governors of East Bengal (1947–1955)[edit source]

Tenure Governor of East Bengal[16][self-published source?]
15 August 1947 – 31 March 1950 Sir Frederick Chalmers Bourne
31 March 1950 – 31 March 1953 Sir Feroz Khan Noon
31 March 1953 – 29 May 1954 Chaudhry Khaliquzzaman
29 May 1954 – May 1955 Iskandar Ali Mirza
May 1955 – June 1955 Muhammad Shahabuddin (acting)
June 1955 – 14 October 1955 Amiruddin Ahmad

Chief Minister of East Bengal (1947–1955)[edit source]

Tenure Chief Minister of East Bengal Political Party
August 1947 – September 1948 Sir Khwaja Nazimuddin Muslim League
September 1948 – April 1954 Nurul Amin Muslim League
April 1954 – 1955 Abul Kasem Fazlul Huq Muslim League

Governors of East Pakistan (1955–1971)[edit source]

In late 1954, prime minister Muhammad Ali Bogra initiated the One Unit policy which resulted in East Bengal province to be renamed to East Pakistan.

Tenure Governor of East Pakistan[16][self-published source?] Political Affiliation
14 October 1955 – March 1956 Amiruddin Ahmad Muslim League
March 1956 – 13 April 1958 A. K. Fazlul Huq Muslim League
13 April 1958 – 3 May 1958 Hamid Ali (acting) Awami League
3 May 1958 – 10 October 1958 Sultanuddin Ahmad Awami League
10 October 1958 – 11 April 1960 Zakir Husain Muslim League
11 April 1960 – 11 May 1962 Lieutenant-General Azam KhanPA Military Administration
11 May 1962 – 25 October 1962 Ghulam Faruque Independent
25 October 1962 – 23 March 1969 Abdul Monem Khan Civil Administration
23 March 1969 – 25 March 1969 Mirza Nurul Huda Civil Administration
25 March 1969 – 23 August 1969 Major-General Muzaffaruddin,[17] PA Military Administration
23 August 1969 – 1 September 1969 Lieutenant-General Sahabzada Yaqub KhanPA Military Administration
1 September 1969 – 7 March 1971 Vice-Admiral Syed Mohammad AhsanPN Military Administration
7 March 1971 – 6 April 1971 Lieutenant-General Sahabzada Yaqub KhanPA Military Administration
6 April 1971 – 31 August 1971 Lieutenant-General Tikka KhanPA Military Administration
31 August 1971 – 14 December 1971 Abdul Motaleb Malik Independent
14 December 1971 – 16 December 1971 Lieutenant-General Amir Abdullah Khan NiaziPA Military Administration

Chief Minister of East Pakistan (1955–1971)[edit source]

Tenure Chief Minister of East Pakistan Political Party
August 1955 – September 1956 Abu Hussain Sarkar Krishan Sramik Party
September 1956 – March 1958 Ata-ur-Rahman Khan Awami League
March 1958 Abu Hussain Sarkar Krishan Sramik Party
March 1958 – 18 June 1958 Ata-ur-Rahman Khan Awami League
18 June 1958 – 22 June 1958 Abu Hussain Sarkar Krishan Sramik Party
22 June 1958 – 25 August 1958 Governor’s Rule
25 August 1958 – 7 October 1958 Ata-ur-Rahman Khan Awami League

On 7 October 1958, the post of Chief Minister of East Pakistan was abolished. And after the independence of Bangladesh on 16 December 1971, the Province of East Pakistan was dissolved.

Indian (west) Bengal (1947–present)[edit source]

Governors of West Bengal[edit source]

# Name Took Office Left Office
1 Chakravarthi Rajagopalachari 1947 1948
2 Kailash Nath Katju 1948 1951
3 Harendra Coomar Mookerjee 1951 1956
4 Phani Bhusan Chakraborty 1956 1956
5 Padmaja Naidu 1956 1967
6 Dharma Vira 1967 1969
7 Deep Narayan Sinha 1969 1969
8 Shanti Swaroop Dhavan 1969 1971
9 Anthony Lancelot Dias 1971 1979
10 Tribhuvana Narayana Singh 1979 1981
11 Bhairab Dutt Pande 1981 1983
12 Anant Prasad Sharma 1983 1984
13 Satish Chandra 1984 1984
14 Uma Shankar Dikshit 1984 1986
15 Nurul Hasan 1986 1989
16 T. V. Rajeshwar 1989 1990
17 Nurul Hasan 1990 1993
18 B. Satyanarayan Reddy 1993 1993
19 K.V. Raghunatha Reddy 1993 1998
20 A.R. Kidwai 1998 1999
21 Shyamal Kumar Sen 1999 1999
22 Viren J. Shah 1999 2004
23 Gopalkrishna Gandhi 2004 2009
24 Devanand Konwar 2009 2010
25 Mayankote Kelath Narayanan 2010 2014
26 Keshari Nath Tripathi 2014

Chief Ministers of West Bengal[edit source]

Key: INC
Indian National Congress
BC-UF
Bangla Congress
CPI(M)
Communist Party of India (Marxist)
TMC
All India Trinamool Congress
# Name Took Office Left Office Political Party
1 Prafulla Chandra Ghosh 15 August 1947 14 January 1948 Indian National Congress
2 Bidhan Chandra Roy 14 January 1948 1 July 1962 Indian National Congress
President’s rule 1 July 1962 8 July 1962
3 Prafulla Chandra Sen 8 July 1962 15 March 1967 Indian National Congress
4 Ajoy Kumar Mukherjee 15 March 1967 2 November 1967 Bangla Congress in United Front
5 Prafulla Chandra Ghosh 2 November 1967 20 February 1968 Nonparty in Progressive Democratic Alliance Front
President’s rule 20 February 1968 25 February 1969
6 Ajoy Kumar Mukherjee 25 February 1969 19 March 1970 Bangla Congress in United Front
President’s rule 19 March 1970 2 April 1971
7 Ajoy Kumar Mukherjee 2 April 1971 28 June 1971 Indian National Congress in coalition
President’s rule 28 June 1971 19 March 1972
8 Siddhartha Shankar Ray 19 March 1972 21 June 1977 Indian National Congress
9 Jyoti Basu 21 June 1977 6 November 2000 Communist Party of India (Marxist) in Left Front
10 Buddhadeb Bhattacharya 6 November 2000 13 May 2011 Communist Party of India (Marxist) in Left Front
11 Mamata Banerjee 20 May 2011 Incumbent All India Trinamool Congress

After independence of Bangladesh[edit source]

East Pakistan seceded from West Pakistan on 16 December 1971 after the end of Bangladesh Liberation War and was named Bangladesh as an independent nation.

The President was the executive Head of state of Bangladesh during Presidential system of government from 1975 to 1991. Thereafter, the Prime Minister is the executive head of governmentof this parliamentary republic while the President is the ceremonial Head of state, elected by the parliament.

Presidents of Bangladesh[edit source]

Key: Awami League / BAKSAL Bangladesh Nationalist Party Jatiya Party Independent
# Name Took Office Left Office Party
1 Sheikh Mujibur Rahman 17 April 1971 12 January 1972 Awami League
Syed Nazrul Islam Acting 17 April 1971 12 January 1972 Awami League
2 Abu Sayeed Chowdhury 12 January 1972 24 December 1973 Awami League
3 Mohammad Mohammadullah 24 December 1973 25 January 1975 Awami League
4 Sheikh Mujibur Rahman 25 January 1975 15 August 1975 (assassinated) BAKSAL
5 Khondaker Mostaq Ahmad 15 August 1975 6 November 1975 Awami League
6 Abu Sadat Mohammad Sayem 6 November 1975 21 April 1977 Awami League
7 Ziaur Rahman 21 April 1977 30 May 1981 (assassinated) Military / Bangladesh Nationalist Party
8 Abdus Sattar 30 May 1981 24 March 1982 (deposed) Bangladesh Nationalist Party
Hussain Muhammad Ershad 24 March 1982 27 March 1982 Military Administration
9 Ahsanuddin Chowdhury 27 March 1982 10 December 1983 Independent
10 Hussain Muhammad Ershad 11 December 1983 6 December 1990 Military / Jatiya Party
Shahabuddin Ahmed Acting 6 December 1990 10 October 1991 Independent
11 Abdur Rahman Biswas 10 October 1991 9 October 1996 Bangladesh Nationalist Party
12 Shahabuddin Ahmed 9 October 1996 14 November 2001 Independent
13 Badruddoza Chowdhury 14 November 2001 21 June 2002 Bangladesh Nationalist Party
Muhammad Jamiruddin Sircar Acting 21 June 2002 6 September 2002 Bangladesh Nationalist Party
14 Iajuddin Ahmed 6 September 2002 12 February 2009 Independent
15 Zillur Rahman 12 February 2009 20 March 2013 (died) Awami League
16 Abdul Hamid 14 March 2013 Incumbent Awami League

Prime Ministers of Bangladesh[edit source]

Key: Awami League / BAKSAL Bangladesh Nationalist Party Jatiya Party Independent
# Name Took Office Left Office Party
1 Tajuddin Ahmed 10 April 1971 13 January 1972 Awami League
2 Sheikh Mujibur Rahman 13 January 1972 26 January 1975 Awami League
3 Mohammad Mansoor Ali 26 January 1975 15 August 1975 BAKSAL
Post abolished (15 August 1975 – 29 June 1978)
Mashiur Rahman (Senior Minister) 29 June 1978 12 March 1979 Bangladesh Nationalist Party
4 Shah Azizur Rahman 15 April 1979 24 March 1982 Bangladesh Nationalist Party
Post abolished (24 March 1982 – 30 March 1984)
5 Ataur Rahman Khan 30 March 1984 9 July 1986 Jatiya Party
6 Mizanur Rahman Chowdhury 9 July 1986 27 March 1988 Jatiya Party
7 Moudud Ahmed 27 March 1988 12 August 1989 Jatiya Party
8 Kazi Zafar Ahmed 12 August 1989 6 December 1990 Jatiya Party
Post abolished (6 December 1990 – 20 March 1991)
9 Khaleda Zia, 1st Term 20 March 1991 16 February 1996 Bangladesh Nationalist Party
10 Khaleda Zia, 2nd Term 16 March 1996 30 March 1996 Bangladesh Nationalist Party
Muhammad Habibur Rahman (Chief Adviser) 30 March 1996 23 June 1996 Independent
11 Sheikh Hasina, 1st Term 23 June 1996 15 July 2001 Awami League
Latifur Rahman (Chief Adviser) 15 July 2001 10 October 2001 Independent
12 Khaleda Zia, 3rd Term 10 October 2001 29 October 2006 Bangladesh Nationalist Party
Iajuddin Ahmed (President and Chief Adviser) 29 October 2006 11 January 2007 Independent
Fakhruddin Ahmed (Chief Adviser) 12 January 2007 6 January 2009 Independent
13 Sheikh Hasina, 2nd Term 6 January 2009 5 January 2014 Awami League
14 Sheikh Hasina, 3rd term 5 January 2014 Incumbent Awami League

 

 

 


References

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  2. Jump up^ Nawas 2006, p. 110.
  3. Jump up^ A General History of the Robberies & Murders of the most Notorious Pirates, by Charles Johnson. Introduction and commentary by David Cordingly. Conway Maritime Press (2002).
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  8. Jump up^ “Literary Gossip”The Week. Toronto. 1 (1): 13. 6 December 1883. Retrieved 1 February 2016.
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  13. Jump up^ Hughes 2009, p. 159.
  14. Jump up^ Frears, StephenDerham, KatieLee, HermioneMonk, RayThe Art of Life: Are Biographies Fiction?. Institute of Arts and Ideas. Retrieved 1 February 2016.
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  16. Jump up^ Daniel R. Meister, “The biographical turn and the case for historical biography” History Compass (Dec. 2017) DOI: 10.1111/hic3.12436 abstract
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