Bengal was conquered by the British in 1757 in the Battle of Plassey. Nawab of Bengal Sirajuddaula was defeated and the way was paved for the establishment of British rule in India. Bengal was the center of British rule in South Asia. The conquest of Bengal made significant contributions to the Industrial Revolution in Britain.
The United Bengal initiative failed for British policy to punish Bengalis for armed resistance and congress opposition towards an Independent Bengal. What later sparked communal violence around India & Pakistan. After a failed attempt to divide Bengal s in 1905 , British successfully divided Bengal between India and Pakistan in 1947 against the demand of a United Bengal .
Bengali’s played a major in the anti-colonial movement in South Asia. Bengal was always the centerpiece of all military and political movement against British rule in South Asia. The most aggressive military campaign to overthrow British was launched by Bengali political leader Subhas Chandra Bose in 1940, he led the military campaign allied with Japan & Germany to fight British imperialism.
As Japan and Bose army advanced in Burma towards Bengal, British PM Winston Churchill ordered to destroy all civilian Boat in Bengal and & exported the grains stock to others presidency What resulted the Bengal famine of 1943 & caused 3 Million Death of Bengali people . After the surrender of Japan , British Cabinet Mission of 1946, split Bengal in India and Pakistan known as partition of Bengal 1947 against a Popular Demand of United Bengal . Bengal Prime MinisterHuseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy and Sarat Chandra Bose campaigned for a Unified Bengal.
They felt the necessity of making Bengal a self-sufficient state with its own constitution. They emphasized that Bengal belonged to the Bengalis and was indivisible. He hoped that all sections of the people of the province would want to live and work for making Bengal a glorious land. Suhrawardy maintained that independence would usher in a new era of peace and prosperity in Bengal.
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United Bengal is a political ideology for a unified Bengali-speaking nation in South Asia. The ideology developed among Bengali nationalistsafter the first partition of Bengal in 1905. The British-ruled Bengal Presidency was divided into Western Bengal and Eastern Bengal and Assam to weaken the independence movement; after much protest Bengal was reunited in 1911.
The United Bengal proposal was the bid made by the BengaliPrime MinisterHuseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy and nationalist leader Sarat Chandra Bose to found a united and independent nation-state of Bengal. The proposal was floated as an secular alternative to the partition of Bengal on communal lines. The initiative failed owing to British diplomacy and communal conflict between Muslims and Hindusthat eventually led to the second partition of Bengal.